District-Courts-Macomb-Map

MAP OF MACOMB COUNTY DISTRICT COURTS

In 2019, Over 8,000 crimes reported in the cities of Eastpointe, Fraser and Roseville

Eastpointe and Roseville Courts: Bulging Criminal, Drunk Driving and Traffic Dockets

The 38th District Court (known as the Eastpointe Court) and the 39th District Court (known as the Roseville Court), are neighboring district courts in the southeastern part of Macomb County. The 39th District Court in Roseville has jurisdiction over the cities of Roseville and Fraser. Districting is based upon several factors which include density and traffic. As the above map illustrates, these districts are relatively small in relation to other districts in Macomb County. Eastpointe and Roseville cover a combined geographic area of approximately 25 square miles, compared to the 42-1 District in Romeo which encompasses an area of 180 square miles and other cities and townships.

  • 38th District Court is located at 16101 Nine Mile, Eastpointe, Michigan 48021. Serviced by 1 Judge with jurisdiction for the City of Eastpointe.
  • 39th District Court is located at 29733 Gratiot Avenue, Roseville, Michigan 48066.  Serviced by 3 Judges with jurisdiction for the City of Roseville and the City of Fraser.

The Eastpointe Police, Roseville Police and Fraser Police provide law enforcement services to the areas covered by the 38th and 39th District Courts.

  • Gratiot Avenue runs through both districts and is patrolled by both the Eastpointe and Roseville Police.
  • A stretch of I-94 and I-696 in Roseville are the responsibility of the Michigan State Police.
  • 8 Mile Road: The Eastpointe Police and Detroit Police monitor this shared border.
  • The Fraser Police monitor activity East of Hayes from 13 Mile Road to 15 Mile Road.

All of the above mentioned roads and expressways generate a considerable mixture of  local, commuting, retail and connecting traffic.

The information in this publication is based upon the experience of our Eastpointe and Roseville criminal defense lawyers.

Criminal Cases in the 38th and 39th District Courts: Provisions of Law to Get Dismissals Available!

There were a total of 8,014 criminal incidents reported by the neighboring cities of Eastpointe, Fraser and Roseville in 2019. The breakdown of crimes reported for each city is as follows:

  • Fraser 866 crimes reported
  • Eastpointe 2,992 crimes reported
  • Roseville 4,156 crimes reported

The majority of these crimes reported in the cities of Eastpointe, Fraser and Roseville involved assault, larceny, drugs and retail fraud. The following is list of the most prevalent misdemeanor and felony cases that we regularly see on the 38th and 39th District Court dockets:

Purpose of Arraignment and Bond: If you are arrested or arraigned for a criminal matter in the 38th District Court or the 39th District Court, you will appear before either a magistrate or judge for purpose of formal arraignment. The following will occur at an arraignment:

  • Charges are read to the defendant.
  • Defendant is advised of rights (to an attorney, to a trial, etc.).
  • For all felony matters, the defendant is given court dates for probable cause conference and preliminary examination.
  • For misdemeanor offenses, the defendant MAY be given a date for a pretrial conference or it will be scheduled at a later date (by mail).
  • The defendant MAY be instructed to provide finger prints.
  • Bond will be determined by the judge or magistrate.

WHENEVER POSSIBLE, it is advisable to have an attorney present for arraignment purposes. An attorney can make a considerable difference at an arraignment hearing by advocating for a low bond and keeping the bond conditions under control.

Bond Condition: EVEN THOUGH PRESUMED INNOCENT,  bond conditions restrict and limit the personal freedom of an individual.   Depending on the circumstances of each case, the following are common bond conditions:

  • No out of state travel (without permission from the court)
  • No contact order (used extensively with respect to domestic violence and assault crimes)
  • GPS Monitoring (used extensively for those charged with sex crimes involving minors).
  • Testing for drugs and alcohol (wearing a monitor, random testing)
  • No possession of firearms
  • No consumption of marijuana or alcohol even though otherwise legal

Again, retaining a local Roseville or Eastpointe criminal defense lawyer can make a big difference in the outcome of the arraignment. It always helps when we can collect background and prepare for the arraignment ahead of time to avoid harsh bond conditions. For this reason, we advise our clients to contact us immediately if they believe the court has an arrest warrant.

Misdemeanor or Felony Classification: In Michigan, the district courts have full jurisdiction to dispose of misdemeanors through sentencing. A misdemeanor is classified as an offense that carries up to 1 year in jail.  Felony cases are another matter. A felony is classified as a crime that can carry more than 1 year in jail. A felony case is initiated in the district court for the arraignment, probable cause conference and preliminary examination. A felony that is not resolved in the district court will be moved to the circuit court for further proceedings. In certain cases, a felony can be reduced to a misdemeanor and can remain in the district court. Accomplishing reduction of a felony to a misdemeanor, thus avoiding a felony conviction, is considered a huge victory.

The outcome of a criminal case in the 38th and 39th District Courts, as well as other Macomb County District Courts, is dependent upon many components.  The most significant factors that can have a bearing on the disposition of a case are:

  • Prior criminal history of the accused party.
  • Cooperation with the police.
  • Whether another party was injured, or property was damaged.
  • The ability of the accused party to provide restitution for damages to the injured party.
  • Whether the offense is a ‘policy case’ (crimes against senior citizens, children

All of these special provisions of law are possible in the 38th District Court and the 39th District Court which can result in the ultimate dismissal of a criminal matter:

Even individuals that have a prior criminal record will be given respect and consideration favorable dispositions in the 38th and 39th District Courts.

High Number of Drunk Driving Cases in the 38th District Court and the 39th District Court

Based upon 2019 statistics, more 130 individuals were tested for alcohol or drugs in connection with suspicion for operating while intoxicated by the Eastpointe, Roseville and Fraser Police Departments:

  • Eastpointe:  58 breath & blood tests for DUI/OWI
  • Fraser:  35 breath & blood tests for DUI/OWI
  • Roseville:  54 breath & blood tests for

Blood is tested for both alcohol and drugs and is not included in the above summary of DUI cases in the 38th and 39th Districts. The actual number of DUI cases is higher when blood results for alcohol and drugs are factored into the totals. The above numbers confirm a high number of DUI cases in these districts. Traffic generated on the expressways, Gratiot Avenue and 8 Mile Road are all contributing factors.

APPROXIMATE DRINK – WEIGHT INDEX CHART FOR MALES AND FEMALESDUI_Image

1st offense drinking and driving:  For most first time drinking and driving offenders, jail is not likely absent some other aggravating circumstances in the 38th and 39th District Courts. A person without any prior drinking and driving offenses can expect to get an OWI reduced to ‘operating while impaired’. It is extremely difficult and rare, but not impossible, to get a drinking and driving offense reduced to a non-criminal offense. In addition to probation, a person convicted for a first drinking and driving offense (operating while impaired) is looking at:

  • Probation for 1 year or less
  • Fines and costs approximately $1,200.00
  • Restricted license for 90 days
  • Attend an alcohol or substance abuse program (discretionary)
  • Possible drug testing, alcohol testing, AA meetings (discretionary)
  • 4 points on driving record

Super Drunk Driving: If a person is charged with Super DUI (BAC .17 or greater) a deviation may need to be filed to get a plea bargain to a lower offense. Super DUI convictions will result in mandatory license suspension for 45 days followed by a restricted license for a period of 320 days with the requirement of a vehicle breathalyzer ignition interlock device (BAIID). The Court can also order installation of an ignition interlock system on any vehicle driven by a person convicted of any drinking and driving offense, not just a Super DUI.

Repeat DUI Offender: A repeat drinking and driving offender may be looking at a longer period of probation, up to 2 years, with the possibility of some jail time.  There are many steps that we can recommend to those charged with a repeat offense to reduce the likelihood of incarceration in almost every Macomb County court.

Third Lifetime DUI = Felony: DUI 3rd is a felony/with a maximum penalty of 1-5 years in prison.  Felony matters begin in the district court and can remain in the district court for purpose of sentencing and probation if reduced to a misdemeanor. Felonies that are not resolved in the district court are handled in the Circuit Court after the probable cause conference or preliminary examination. We evaluate every DUI 3rd for opportunities to get it reduced to a misdemeanor by filing strategic legal motions, negotiations and filing a deviation request.

Traffic Violations in the 38th and 39th District Courts: Reduced to Avoid Points and Record of any Conviction!

Several police agencies have an active presence monitoring the activity of vehicular traffic within the jurisdiction of the 38th and 39th District Courts.  Like other district courts in Macomb County, I would say that traffic tickets are on the top of the list of types of cases that are litigated at these Courts. When resolving a traffic matter in the 38th and 39th District Courts, we are often able to negotiate a reduction or avoid points. A substantial reduction in a traffic ticket occurs when it is reduced to an offense such as impeding traffic or double parking. A traffic ticket that is reduced to impeding traffic or double parking does not carry any points and will never appear on a person’s driving record! We are also able to get favorable results for individuals charged with misdemeanor traffic offenses such as driving while suspended, reckless driving and leaving the scene of an accident.

Court Personnel are Forbidden to Give Legal Advice: Yet most courts are making it easier than ever to just pay your traffic ticket by visiting the court’s website and giving offenders the convenient option to pay by credit card.  What they won’t tell you on their website is that you will get points on your driving record and that you may will wind up with higher insurance premiums for several years. Unfortunately, most individuals that receive a traffic ticket do not hire a lawyer. The path of least resistance, paying the ticket, can be much costlier in the long run.

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The city of St. Clair Shores, in Macomb County,  is nestled between Lake St. Clair along its entire easterly border and I-94 running alongside its western border.  The 40th District Court has jurisdiction over legal matters that arise in the City of St. Clair Shores that include the following:

The 40th District Court is located on the corner of 11 Mile Road and Jefferson: 27701 Jefferson, St. Clair Shores, Michigan 48081, Phone: 586-445-5280. Honorable Mark A. Fratarcangeli and Honorable Joseph Craigen Oster presiding.

St. Clair Shores: Nautical Mile, I-94, I-696

St. Clair Shores is best known for its several miles of coastline on Lake St. Clair. The lake is a big draw for recreation and for many that choose to live in St. Clair Shores. The area has a reputation for its charm and being a safe place to live. St. Clair Shores is the hometown of ABDO LAW partner, Cy M. Abdo.

Most of the recreational activity and action in St. Clair Shores takes place in a dedicated zone known as the Nautical Mile. The Nautical Mile in St. Clair Shores, located on Jefferson from 9 Mile Road to 10 Mile Road,  is a Michigan landmark which consists of numerous restaurants, bars, marinas and boat dealers along a one mile stretch of land on the shoreline of Lake St. Clair.

The City of St. Clair Shores has its own police department and the Michigan State Police patrol the I-94 and I-696 interstate expressways.

Criminal Cases in the 40th District Courts: Provisions of Law to Get Dismissals Available!

In 2019, 3116 crimes were reported in the entire city of St. Clair Shores. The following is a list of the most prevalent crimes reported in St. Clair Shores as well as most other Macomb County cities and townships:

 The 40th District Court keeps close tabs on the community to insure safe streets and recreational enjoyment. I would say that both judges take a ‘hands on’ approach to their cases. They use alcohol and drug testing extensively to monitor individuals that are on bond or convicted of an alcohol or drug related offense. Jail is rare for first time offenders. However, you will always want the benefit of an experienced 40th District Court criminal defense lawyer to get the best possible result .

Arraignment and Bond: If you are arrested or arraigned on a criminal matter in the 40th District Court, you will appear either before a magistrate or judge.  If you receive a misdemeanor ticket, your attorney may waive the arraignment and have the matter scheduled for a pretrial conference at a later date. If you have a warrant for your arrest or are otherwise required to personally appear for arraignment, the presence of an experienced St. Clair Shores criminal defense lawyer can a big difference at an arraignment to keep the bond low and keep the bond conditions at a minimum. I have found that Judge Oster, Judge Fratarcangeli and the magistrate will listen to an attorney’s remarks regarding bond which can save potentially thousands of dollars that a bondsman would otherwise cost.  However, even though you are presumed innocent, the 40th District Court will require alcohol and/or drug testing as a condition of bond upon being arraigned and during the pendency of the case.

No-Contact Orders: The 40th District Court will also impose a no-contact order in every case involving domestic violence. When a no-contact order is imposed, it restricts an individual’s right to contact or communicate with the alleged victim, even if they are married. If you find yourself in this position, a skilled domestic violence defense lawyer can file a motion to remove the no-contact order. Violating any bond condition is no joke and can result in jail time while the underlying case is pending.

Alcohol/Drug Testing: Those facing alcohol or drug charges in the 40th District Court will almost automatically be required to engage in testing for alcohol and/or drugs soon after a case enters the court system. Testing will also be imposed on those charged with offenses that involve alcohol or drugs such as disorderly conduct or domestic violence. Urine testing is the preferred means to test for drugs. For alcohol testing, the 40th District Court will consider one of the following:

  • Random breath tests
  • Ankle (SCRAM) continuous monitoring system
  • Soberlink (handheld device connected to cellular service or Wifi)

Once a person is required to be tested for alcohol and/or drugs, the 40th District Court Probation Department will be quick to set up a show cause or violation hearing if a person misses a prompt to provide a breath or urine sample or there are any positive results for any alcohol or drugs. We have represented clients that have faced show cause violations because of alcohol or drug use. A testing violation can also occur where the offender denies any alcohol or drug use and claims that the result was a “false positive”. These situations can usually be resolved with the court when the offender has an action plan to avoid further violations or can show the court that there has not been any use of alcohol or drugs.

Misdemeanor or Felony Classification: In Michigan, the district courts have full jurisdiction to dispose of misdemeanors through sentencing. A misdemeanor is classified as an offense that carries up to 1 year in jail.  Felony cases are another matter. A felony is classified as a crime that can carry more than 1 year in jail. A felony case is initiated in the district court for the arraignment, probable cause conference and preliminary examination. A felony that is not resolved in the district court will be moved to the circuit court for further proceedings. In certain cases, a felony can be reduced to a misdemeanor and can remain in the district court. Accomplishing reduction of a felony to a misdemeanor, thus avoiding a felony conviction, is a huge legal victory.

The outcome of a criminal case in the 40th District Courts, as well as other Macomb County District Courts, is dependent upon many components.  The most significant factors that can have a bearing on the disposition of a case are:

  • Prior criminal history of the accused party.
  • Cooperation with the police.
  • Whether another party was injured, or property was damaged.
  • The ability of the accused party to provide restitution for damages to the injured party.
  • Whether the offense is a ‘policy case’ (crimes against senior citizens, children).

In our experience, criminal cases can be resolved favorably at the 40th District Court. All these special provisions of law are possible in the 40th District Court which can result in a dismissal of a criminal matter:

Drunk Driving Cases in the 40th District Court

In 2019, there were approximately 164 arrests for operating a motor vehicle under the influence of drugs or alcohol in St. Clair Shores.  Out of this number, 60 individuals registered a blood alcohol content (BAC) of .17 or greater and faced  “super drunk driving” or OWI with a High BAC. In 2016, there were about one-third fewer individuals facing “super drunk driving” in St. Clair Shores with only 42 offenders testing with a BAC of .17 or more.

1st offense drinking and driving:  A person without any prior DUI/OWI offenses can expect to get through the court process by getting a plea deal to a reduced charge, with no jail and no loss of license.  In practice, the majority of first time arrests for  OWI (.08 to .16) can be negotiated to a reduced to ‘operating while impaired’. It is extremely difficult and rare, but not impossible, to get a drinking and driving offense reduced to a non-criminal offense. In addition to probation, a person convicted for a first drinking and driving offense (operating while impaired) is looking at:

  • Probation for 1 year or less
  • Fines and costs approximately $1,200.00
  • Restricted license for 90 days
  • Attend an alcohol or substance abuse program (discretionary)
  • Possible drug testing, alcohol testing, AA meetings (discretionary)
  • 4 points on driving record

Super Drunk Driving: If a person is charged with Super DUI (BAC .17 or greater) a deviation may need to be filed to get a plea bargain for a lower offense. Super DUI convictions will result in mandatory license suspension for 45 days followed by a restricted license for a period of 320 days with the requirement of a vehicle breathalyzer ignition interlock device (BAIID). The Court can also order installation of an ignition interlock system on any vehicle driven by a person convicted of any drinking and driving offense, not just a Super DUI.

Repeat DUI Offender: A repeat drinking and driving offender may be looking at a longer period of probation, up to 2 years, with the possibility of some jail time.  There are many steps that we can recommend to those charged with a repeat offense to reduce the likelihood of incarceration in almost every court.

Third Lifetime DUI = Felony: DUI 3rd is a felony/with a maximum penalty of 1-5 years in prison.  Felony matters begin in the district court and can remain in the district court for purpose of sentencing and probation ONLY if reduced to a misdemeanor. Felonies that are not resolved in the district court are handled in the Circuit Court after the probable cause conference or preliminary examination. Click here for more information on felony procedure.

The 40th District Court Probation Department: 27701 Jefferson, St. Clair Shores, Michigan 48081

The 40th District Court has its own probation department located inside of the courthouse.

It is within the judge’s discretion whether to place an individual on probation after being convicted of a criminal or drunk driving offense. When probation is imposed, the judge may require reporting or non-reporting probation.  The maximum period of probation that can be imposed in the district courts is 2 years.

Traffic Violations in the 40th District Court: Reduced to Avoid Points and Record of any Conviction!

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Like other district courts in Macomb County, I would say that traffic tickets are on the top of the list of types of cases that are litigated at the 40th District Court. The presence of I-94 and I-696 contribute to the traffic volume in St. Clair Shores.  When resolving a traffic matter in the 40th District Court, we are often able to negotiate a reduction or avoid points. A substantial reduction in a traffic ticket occurs when it is reduced to an offense such as impeding traffic or double parking. A traffic ticket that is reduced to impeding traffic or double parking does not carry any points and will never appear on a person’s driving record! We are also able to get favorable results for individuals charged with misdemeanor traffic offenses such as driving while suspended, reckless driving and leaving the scene of an accident

Courts are making it easier than ever to just pay your traffic ticket by visiting the court’s website and conveniently providing an option to pay by credit card.  Unfortunately, most individuals that receive a traffic ticket do not hire a lawyer and wind up with a record and points that will have an impact on insurance premiums for several years. The path of least resistance, paying the ticket, can be much costlier in the long run.

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According to 2019 Michigan State Police records – 4,933 crimes were reported to the Clinton Township Police. The majority of crimes reported were for larceny, retail fraud (shoplifting), operating while intoxicated (OWI), OWI with a high BAC (.17 or more), domestic violence and assault.

41B District Court Information, Location, Zoom Identification

The 41B District Court is located at 22380 Starks Drive, Clinton Township, Michigan 48038, phone: 586-469-9300.  It has jurisdiction to handle civil, traffic and criminal cases arising in Clinton Township, Harrison Township and Mount Clemens. Clinton Township has its own police department while Harrison Township and Mount Clemens are policed by the Macomb County Sheriff’s Department. The Court is served by Judge Sebastian Lucido, Judge Jacob Femminineo and Judge Carrie Lynn Fuca. In 2020, Judge Femminineo replaced long standing Judge Linda Davis. Judge Linda Davis is now active an organization that she spearheaded, Families Against Narcotics (FAN). The Covid-19 pandemic has resulted in many courts conducting hearings via Zoom which allows participants to appear remotely. The Zoom identification for criminal, drunk driving and traffic matters at the 41B District Court is: 218-957-8812. In our opinion, Zoom hearings are here to stay long after Covid-19 is wiped out.

41B District Court has an expansive jurisdiction that covers Macomb County from Lake St. Clair in Harrison Township to Hayes Road on the Sterling Heights border, and from 14 Mile Road to Hall Road. The area has a diverse mixture of established and newer real estate, shopping centers, Macomb County Community College, county government offices and the Partridge Creek Mall. The Macomb County Sheriff’s Department and the Clinton Township Police are the predominant law enforcement agencies in the area.

More than 10% of the total number of crimes in Macomb County are reported in 41B District Court boundaries. In 2019, there were 41,683 crimes reported in Macomb County with 4,933 being reported through the Clinton Township Police Department and several more reported to the Macomb County Sheriff Department.

We are frequent practitioners in the 41B District Court with more experience in that jurisdiction than any other attorneys in Macomb County.  In our opinion, the 41B District Court will give a person a second chance and has a philosophy to encourage rehabilitation and therapeutic justice rather than jail and punitive measures. 

Facing legal trouble? Hire a local Clinton Township lawyer because court personnel cannot give legal advice and the prosecutor does not represent you!

The court staff, the prosecutor and judicial officers are forbidden by law to provide you with legal advice. If you are facing a criminal or drunk driving matter in the 41B District Court, you need a skilled Clinton Township criminal defense lawyer to fight for your rights and get your life back on track. The 41B District handles a wide range of the criminal cases that occur in Clinton Township, Harrison Township and Mount Clemens.  The following is list of some of the most prevalent misdemeanor and felony cases on the 41B District Court’s criminal docket:

Crimes involving firearms are also on the rise throughout Macomb County. Gun crimes include carry a concealed weapon, brandishing a firearm and possession of a firearm under the influence.

There’s always a way to resolve a legal predicament. In many cases, there’s a way to get out of the criminal justice system unscathed and without a conviction or by getting a felony dropped down to a petty offense.  An attorney can explain how all of these special provisions of law are utilized in the 41-B District Court which can result in a dismissal of a criminal matter:

  • HYTA for youthful offenders (age 17 to 23)
  •  MCL 333.7411 for first time drug offenders
  • MCL 769.a for domestic violence.
  • Delayed Sentence or Deferral

Retail Fraud Cases in the 41B District Court: DISMISSED!

The offense of retail fraud, also known as shoplifting, can occur when an individual intentionally does any of the following at a retail or business establishment:

  • Conceals property with the intent to steal
  • Changes a price tag or packaging of an item
  • Attempts to defeat the checkout scanner

The profile of many of our clients facing a retail fraud charge is similar. If you are charged with retail fraud, chances are that you have not been in trouble before and had the money to pay for the goods. Our clients with strong ethnic ties worry about losing respect within their ethnic community. Clients that are not US citizens are vulnerable and face deportation.  Getting the best 41B District Court retail fraud lawyer is important if you want to keep your dignity, keep your case private, avoid deportation and get the charge dismissed with NO JAIL.

Domestic Violence

Are you being charged with domestic violence in the 41B District Court? Are other attorneys telling you to just plead guilty? Have you been told that you can’t get the no-contact order lifted? Does your significant other, spouse or other side want it dismissed? If you are in this position, get a Macomb County domestic violence lawyer to explain how you can DO NOT have to plead guilty, can get the no-contact order lifted and will not be labeled with an assault crime.

Over 200 Charged with Operating While Intoxicated in the 41B District in 2019

There is always a consistently high number of OWI/DUI cases in the 41B District Court. From our experience, you are not looking at jail or losing your license if you are charged with a misdemeanor OWI/DUI. In addition, if you are charged with a felony OWI/DUI (OWI Third), there is a good chance it can be reduced to a misdemeanor with the right 41B District Court drunk driving lawyers. It is extremely difficult and rare, but not impossible, to get a drinking and driving offense reduced to a non-criminal offense. Non-reporting probation, reporting probation and counseling may also be imposed depending upon the circumstances. Those with a history of alcohol or substance abuse, or that register a high blood alcohol content (BAC), can expect a longer period of counseling. Fortunately, the judges in the 41B District Court have a sentencing philosophy that encourages rehabilitation rather than incarceration.

If a person is charged with Super DUI (BAC .17 or greater) a deviation may need to be filed to get a plea bargain to a lower offense. Using Clinton Township drunk driving defense lawyers that know the local policies, practices and prosecutors is your best bet if you are looking to get significant deal on any drunk driving case.

All of the 41B District Court Judges have been in private law practice 

The 41B District Court bench all had careers in the private sector running their own law practices. The 41B District Court Judges all know what its like to stand next to a man or woman that is falsely accused of a crime.

We are here to protect you if you are being mistreated by the system or the prosecutor is trying to nail you for an offense where the facts that are weak or spurious. Unfortunately, once charged, it is not that easy to get a case dropped. Getting a local Clinton Township criminal defense attorney that knows the policies of the 41B District Court and the Macomb Prosecutor’s Office is the best place to start if you are looking to get out of the court system with the best possible outcome. As we said, the judges in this jurisdiction are very fair and have represented individuals that have walked in your shoes. The 41B District Court is a place where you will be given every opportunity for a fair outcome of your case and a fresh start can happen.

The 41-B District Court Probation Department: 22380 Starks Drive, Clinton Township, Michigan 48038

The 41-B District Court has its own probation department located inside of the courthouse.

It is within the judge’s discretion whether to place an individual on probation after being convicted of a criminal or drunk driving offense. When probation is imposed, the judge may require reporting or non-reporting probation.  The maximum period of probation that can be imposed in the district courts is 2 years.

Probation Modification Hearings: In Michigan, probation can be imposed for up to two (2) years for a misdemeanor offense. While on probation, a person’s right to travel or consume alcoholic beverages can be restricted. Other rights can also be limited or denied while on probation. Probation is an alternative to jail but it also a restraint on personal freedoms and rights. If you are on probation and have been compliant, the 41B District Court Judges may consider modifying or terminating your probation. You will need to talk to an attorney about filing a motion to modify or terminate probation. Probation conditions, such as drug and alcohol testing, can also be scheduled for a modification hearing. In addition, there are many scenarios where we have advocated for ZERO probation, or for an abbreviated period of probation, on behalf of clients that are not likely to re-offend.

Isolated Incident, First Offender, Not Likely to Get Into Trouble Again: An attorney can advocate for lesser probation, non-reporting probation or a short period of probation for clients that are isolated offenders and not likely to get into legal trouble going forward.

Traffic Violations in the 41B District Court: Reduced to Avoid Points and Record of any Conviction!

Like other district courts in Macomb County, I would say that traffic tickets are on the top of the list of types of cases that are litigated at the 41B District Court. Gratiot Avenue, Metro Parkway, a stretch of I-94 and Hall Road all contribute to the traffic volume in the 41B District Court.  When resolving a traffic matter in the 41B District Court, we are often able to negotiate a reduction or avoid points. A substantial reduction in a traffic ticket occurs when it is reduced to an offense such as impeding traffic or double parking. A traffic ticket that is reduced to impeding traffic or double parking does not carry any points and will never appear on a person’s driving record! We are also able to get favorable results for individuals charged with misdemeanor traffic offenses such as driving while suspended, reckless driving and leaving the scene of an accident

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Royal Oak is one of the most popular nightlife destinations in Metro Detroit. There are few other towns that in just a couple city blocks have so many options for food and entertainment. Every week thousands of patrons fill restaurants such as Ronin, Town Tavern, or Andiamo. Royal Oak is also home to many well-known night spots such as Commune, Blackfinn, Fifth Avenue, and Luna. While there seems to be a push to attract people to the City for an evening out, the Royal Oak police do not tolerate drunken behavior on its streets. Anyone who sits in the back of the 44th District‘s Court Room for a morning will tell you that the docket is full of drinking related cases which include drunk driving and disorderly conduct. The point of this blog post is two-fold; one is to inform how to avoid a disorderly conduct charge and the second is to explain how our office can help if you are being charged in Royal Oak.

Disorderly conduct is NOT a civil infraction, it is a criminal misdemeanor, and it is punishable by jail time as well as a fine and court costs. In addition, to possible jail, fines and costs, the following sanctions may also be imposed or court ordered:

  • Up to 2 years probation.
  • Drug and alcohol testing while on bond or probation.
  • Substance abuse/alcohol counseling.
  • Community service.
  • Oakland County WWAM community service.
  • Restitution for any damages or injuries.
  • Municipal response (police) costs.

A night out with friends should not end up as a disaster. It is our job to get your case under control and get you out of the system with minimal consequences and the ability to earn a dismissal of the charge upon compliance,

What is Considered Disorderly Conduct in Royal Oak?

Legally speaking, the City of Royal Oak defines Disorderly Conduct as follows:

§ 278-35. Disorderly conduct
.

A person commits the offense of disorderly conduct if he or she:
A. Engages in fighting or in violent, tumultuous or threatening behavior;
B. Makes unreasonable noise which tends to cause a public danger, alarm, disorder or nuisance;
C. Uses threatening, abusive or obscene language or makes an obscene gesture, which by their very use inflict injury or tend to incite a breach of the peace;
D. Without lawful authority, disturbs any lawful assembly or meeting of persons;
E. Obstructs vehicular or pedestrian traffic;
F. Possesses or consumes alcoholic liquor in any public park, public place of amusement, or area under the jurisdiction of the City of Royal Oak that is owned and/or administered by the City of Royal Oak;
G. Urinates in a public place, except at public toilets.
H. Engages in an illegal occupation or business;
I. Loiters in a house of ill fame or prostitution or place where prostitution or lewdness is practiced, encouraged, or allowed;
J. Knowingly loiters in or about a place where an illegal occupation or business is being conducted;
K. Is found jostling or roughly crowding people unnecessarily in a public place;
L. Commits the offense of failure as a disorderly person to disperse if he or she participates with two more other persons in a course of disorderly conduct likely to cause substantial harm or serious inconvenience, annoyance or alarm, and intentionally refuses or fails to disperse when ordered to do so by a peace officer or other public servant engaged in executing or enforcing the law;
M. Permits or suffers any place occupied or controlled by him or her to be a resort of noisy, boisterous, or disorderly persons.
N. A person commits the offense of public intoxication if he or she appears in a public place under the influence of alcohol, a controlled substance, other drugs or combination thereof and he or she is either endangering directly the safety of another person or of property, or is acting in a manner that causes a public disturbance.
O. Commits the offense of window peeping.

Examples of Disorderly Conduct, Public Intoxication Cases, Peeing in Public

Practically speaking, the disorderly conduct state statute and local city ordinances cover a wide range of behavior that many might not realize amounts to criminal activity. There are a several scenarios that can result in being charged with disorderly conduct (a/k/a drunken disorderly or public intoxication). Here is just of sample of cases that we have seen:

  • Getting forcibly removed from a bar, only to find the police outside, who witness the scene and issue a disorderly citation.
  • Creating a disturbance of any kind, or fighting, after consumption of alcohol.
  • Urinating in public.
  • Entering the wrong house in a neighborhood after consuming alcohol (this happens more often than you would think).
  • Laying down on the sidewalk intoxicated or vomiting in a public place.
  • Having sex in public (which can also lead to more serious sex crimes such as indecent exposure or gross indecency).

Other activity that will put you at risk for a disorderly conduct is being loud, harassing/pushing people in places of business, interfering with public property, and most importantly being disrespectful towards law enforcement.

Felony Charges for Extreme Conduct: Resisting/Obstructing the Police, Fleeing

The very nature of disorderly conduct, in our opinion, is that it is a fallback charge when conduct does not rise to the level of a more serious crime. Word to the wise, if being questioned by police ALWAYS be cooperative and polite. Lashing out towards law enforcement can turn a 90 day disorderly conduct misdemeanor charge into a felony such as  resisting and obstructing which can carry 2 years in prison. Likewise, driving off or running from the police is always a bad idea because once apprehended, the offender can be charged with fleeing and eluding, a felony with various penalties.

Hot Spots for Disorderly Conduct: Royal Oak, Ferndale, St. Clair Shores, Utica, Detroit

Mostly, we see disorderly conduct, or alcohol related cases (urinating in public, indecent exposure), arising in areas where there is a concentration of bars and people are assembled on the streets for various reasons. There is no limitation to where a disorderly conduct offense can occur. Nonetheless, the vast majority of cases occur in areas which offer a popular bar/nightclub scene like Royal Oak, Detroit, St. Clair Shores (Nautical Mile), downtown Utica, and downtown Ferndale.  Detroit sports venues and sports bars are also places where the police are watching and charging exuberant fans with disorderly conduct.  While disorderly conduct cases are always one of the most prevalent on every district court docket, I would say that we see more of them occur on the Wednesday before Thanksgiving (one of the biggest ‘bar nights’) and Tigers opening day, than at any other time.

Courts will Consider Deferring Proceedings and a Dismissal!

Most of the people we see charged with this offense are young adults, those applying for school and work. A disorderly conduct is a horrible offense to have on your record at such a crucial period. Without any context for the charge, employers and educators will just see that the accused was too drunk in public. For that reason, fighting or negotiating these charges is crucial.

Unfortunately these cases do not lend themselves neatly to trials. Typically the accused was drunk and it makes for memory/credibility issues. However, our office has found that such cases are normally ripe for negotiation. If you are charged with Disorderly Conduct, do not make the fatal mistake of pleading guilty without first knowing all of your options. Contacting an experienced criminal defense lawyer should be your first priority. Oftentimes, we can arrange a probationary period whereby the charge will be dismissed upon compliance with any conditions ordered by the court at the conclusion of the term. The length of the probationary period and the terms of probation are in the sole discretion of the Judge assigned to the case which may include all or none of the following: alcohol testing, drug testing, counseling, community service, reporting to a probation officer, fines/costs (always imposed) and possible jail time (rarely imposed unless the circumstances are extreme).

Our Firm is experienced in Royal Oak’s 44th District Court. We have found that its Judges are very realistic, fair, and will listen to well-reasoned arguments. Depending on the circumstances our office may recommend counseling if we believe, based on our experience, that it is necessary or will help facilitate a favorable disposition.
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Traffic offenses are classified as non-criminal or criminal. A non-criminal traffic violation is called a “civil infraction”.  In this article, ABDO LAW will explain the differences between various traffic offenses and why you should fight every traffic ticket to avoid points and higher insurance premiums.The Michigan Traffic Offense Code contains a complete list of all Michigan traffic offenses along with penalties, points and license sanctions.

The Difference Between Civil Infractions and Criminal Traffic Violations

Civil Infractions: A civil infraction can result in the following sanctions: points on your driving record with secretary of state and monetary sanction (fine) to the court system. Not all civil infractions result in points or go on your driving record. If you are wondering, there are a few civil infractions which we can get in a plea deal to resolve a traffic ticket and keep a client’s record clean. The following offenses do not appear on your record and do not carry any points: double parking, impeding traffic and sudden acceleration. Yes, the court remains able to assess a fine for these matters. However, insurance rates will not be impacted since these offenses do not show up on your record. That makes it a huge deal to get a traffic offense reduced to a civil infraction which DOES NOT appear on your driving record. Here are a few examples of common civil infractions that can hurt you because they carry points and appear on your driving:


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41A District, Shelby Township Division

Jurisdiction over Shelby Township, Macomb Township and Utica

Macomb County, the 586 County: 9 District Courts, Over 2,000 DUI Arrests in 2018 

From our experience, those finding themselves charged with operating a motor vehicle under the influence of drugs or alcohol (DUI/OWI), rarely fit the mold of someone that you would expect to get into trouble with the law. In many situations, our clients have responsible employment, solid relationships and lead healthy lifestyles. On the other extreme, we have represented those that admit to a substance abuse problem, use alcohol as a social lubricant after a recent breakup or divorce and/or are self-medicating to numb psychological disorders, relationship problems or a significant loss. Unfortunately, once in the court system, a person can be unfairly treated and characterized as a substance abuser because of an isolated episode of alcohol consumption and lack of knowledge of Michigan’s strict DUI laws. Whatever situation you are facing, we know that you didn’t intentionally set out to get charged with driving under the influence but consider yourself in the right place to get the straight facts if your case is in Macomb County. 

There are 83 counties in Michigan with Macomb County ranking third in population size behind Wayne County and Oakland County. The cities of Warren and Sterling Heights rank third and fourth in population size among Michigan cities. Macomb County is the “586” county and home to 9 district courts which covers a diverse population and contrasting regions from Eastpointe on the 8 Mile Road border to Romeo, a community dotted with apple orchards, rural charm. Others areas in Macomb County, such as Macomb Township, Shelby Township, Chesterfield Township and Washington Township, have seen explosive residential and commercial growth.

We have dedicated this  article to give you the big picture on the topic of driving under the influence (DUI/OWI) in Macomb County based upon our experience handling 1,000’s of DUI/OWI cases and because DUI/OWI cases are consistently one of the most prevalent criminal charges in the Macomb County district courts. The list below contains links to the district courts located in Macomb County:

Michigan State Police Keep Drunk Driving Statistics 

Although I have not officially counted, there are more laws, ordinances and administrative rules on the books for drunk driving than exist for murder, kidnapping and armed robbery combined! 

Since 1999, the Michigan State Police has kept track of DUI/OWI cases in every Michigan county. This data can be found online Michigan Drunk Driving Audit. In 2018, there were approximately 2,200 arrests for operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs in Macomb County. Here are the numbers of incidents (breath/blood tests) for select police agencies in Macomb County.

  • Macomb County Sheriff: 369
  • Warren: 198
  • St. Clair Shores: 162
  • Clinton Township: 156
  • Shelby Township: 155
  • Sterling Heights: 151
  • Chesterfield Township: 127
  • New Baltimore: 90
  • Roseville: 85
  • Utica: 72
  • Eastpointe: 66
  • Fraser: 50
  • Richmond: 35
  • Centerline: 18
  • Romeo: 11

A word about these numbers: These numbers represent the total of those tested for alcohol or drugs by a breath or blood test. The ultimate charge is dependent on the test result for alcohol (.08 or .17 or greater) or drugs, whether an injury/death occurred, the prior record of the offender and other factors. Surely you are feeling unlucky if you have been charged with DUI/OWI in one of these jurisdictions considering that several thousands of individuals drive under the influence of alcohol or drugs in Macomb County on any given weekend. The Macomb County Sheriff, which provides law enforcement in several major areas (Macomb Township, Harrison Township, Washington Township), sees the greatest number of OWI incidents within Macomb County. Lastly, geographic size alone does not determine OWI activity. For example, the City of Utica, with several bars, Jimmy John’s Field, restaurants and hotels crammed into a compact geographical area of 1.776 square miles, had 72 OWI incidents in 2018, compared with Sterling Heights (151 incidents) that is almost 20 times larger.

What do the abbreviations mean for OWI, OWVI, OUID & OWI High BAC?

You can expect to be hit with confusing legal jargon and abbreviations if you are charged with driving or operating under the influence. Over the years, drunk driving laws have evolved but some of the old abbreviations have survived and are still widely used to refer to a drunk driving offense.

  • OWI=Operating while intoxicated: This offense covers charges when a person has a blood alcohol content of .08% or greater which is abbreviated as OWI. The abbreviations of DUI and OUIL mean the same thing as an OWI but are from a generation of prior drunk driving laws.
  • OWVI=Operating while visibly impaired:  This is the offense which is a lower charge than OWI . OWI is often reduced to OWVI in the court system.
  • OWPD=Operating with the presence of a Schedule 1 controlled substance: As determined by a blood test.
  • OUID=Operating under the influence of drugs: Includes situations where someone is impaired by the use of prescription medications.
  • OWI with High BAC=Operating with a high blood alcohol content: This is also referred to as a “super drunk driving” and is charged when a person has a blood alcohol content of .17% or more. OWI with high BAC carries much higher criminal and driving penalties than OWI or OWVI. Most county prosecutors have a policy and do not reduce OWI with a high BAC without policy deviation granted.

Why did the police destroy my driver’s license?

Can I still drive with a temporary license?

When will I get my picture license back?

dui 257g

The following is a directive to law enforcement officers after placing someone under arrest for a DUI:

MCL 257.625g: On behalf of the secretary of state, immediately confiscate the person’s license or permit to operate a motor vehicle and, if the person is otherwise eligible for a license or permit, issue a temporary license or permit to the person. The temporary license or permit shall be on a form provided by the secretary of state.

Once officially arrested for a drunk driving offense, the police will destroy the plastic driver’s license and issue a Michigan Temporary Driving Permit as seen above.  This permit will be provided to the offender upon release from jail along with a baggie containing the following:  breath-test result, ticket or other notification, bond receipt and towing receipt. This Michigan Temporary Driving Permit will enable the person to continue to operate a vehicle without any restrictions. Any license restrictions or suspension will not be triggered by the Secretary of State until there is a finding of guilt for  OWI/Impaired . Upon conviction or finding of guilt, the Secretary of State will issue license action by mail to the last address of the offender. The aggrieved party may obtain a new picture license after all of the license action has expired with respect to the underlying conviction offense. License action may also be imposed for alcohol/drug test refusals pursuant to Michigan’s implied consent laws.

License Suspension, Revocations, Restrictions

There are mandatory license sanctions for every OWI offense. Upon conviction, these sanctions, or action, is imposed by the Secretary of State and the court system is powerless to intervene or provide any relief when a person is suspended or revoked for a drinking or driving offense.  Sobriety court may also save a repeat OWI/DUI offender from a mandatory license revocation.

Michigan Alcohol or Drug Crime License Action
First Offense OWI (.08 or greater)  30 days suspended, 150 days restricted
First Offense OUID (drugs)  30 days suspended, 150 days restricted
Second Offense within 7 Years Indefinite revocation (minimum 1 year)
Second Offense within 7 Years (Sobriety Court) 45 days suspended, 320 days restricted with BAIID
Third Offense within 10 Years Indefinite revocation 1 year to 5 years
Child Endangerment w/Child u/age 16 90 days suspended, 90 days restricted
Super Drunk (High BAC .17% or greater) 45 days suspended, 320 days restricted with BAIID
Impaired Driving (OWVI) 90 days restricted
Zero Tolerance, Under 21 w/.02% – .07% 30 days restricted
OWI/Causing Injury Indefinite revocation
OWI Causing Death Indefinite revocation
Other Felony Convictions w/Motor Vehicle Revocation or Suspension
First Offense Drug Crime  30 days suspended, 150 days restricted
Second Offense Drug Crime  60 days suspended, 305 days restricted

A person issued a restricted license  may operate a vehicle, to and from any combination of the following places:

  • In the course of the person’s employment/occupation.
  • The person’s residence.
  • The person’s workplace.
  • An alcohol, drug or mental health education treatment program as ordered by the court.
  • AA or NA meetings.
  • An educational institution at which the person is enrolled as a student.
  • A place of regularly occurring medical treatment for a serous condition or medical emergency of the person or a member of the person’s household.
  • An ignition interlock service provider (for those required to have a BAIID device).
  • The judge has discretion to permit a minor’s custodian to drive to a day care center or educational institutional where the child is enrolled.

An indefinite license revocation may be appealed after a minimum of one (1) year (or after 5 years for a second revocation) to the Michigan Department of State. The process to regain driving privileges is known as a driver’s license restoration proceeding.

The Science of Blood Alcohol Content (BAC)

Shot, Beer, and Wine

Legal intoxication means the amount of alcohol contained in one’s blood (reported as a percentage) that will constitute drunk driving (operating while intoxicated). Law enforcement officers use breath, blood or urine tests to measure a person’s blood alcohol content (BAC). In Michigan, a BAC of .08% or more is considered legal intoxication, regardless of actual intoxication. If a person has a BAC of .17% or greater, the charge to SUPER OWI or OWI with High BAC. A search warrant for a blood test may be obtained when a chemical test is refused or under circumstances where the police are seeking a blood test for drugs or marijuana. If the Secretary of State finds that the refusal was not reasonable, the offender’s license will be suspended for a one (1) year period pursuant to Michigan’s implied consent laws.

Drink/weight BAC index charts, such as the one below, are a fairly reliable source of information on the subject of blood alcohol content.

DUI BAC CHART MALE & FEMALE

 

Unfortunately, this whole process is technical, confusing and often catches people by surprise. Seniors citizens are especially vulnerable as they usually avoid alcoholic beverages because of medications or other age related health concerns. In addition, senior citizens, like most people, rarely understand their individual tolerances to alcohol and how much alcohol consumption is required to be legally intoxicated. The science of alcohol elimination from the body also plays a role in a person’s BAC. Just as alcohol is absorbed in a person’s blood over time, it is also eliminated. Although each person has a unique metabolism rate, it is estimated that alcohol is eliminated from the body at the rate of .015% per hour after hitting a peak BAC.  At this rate, it takes an estimated 70 to 90 minutes, or longer, for the human body to eliminate a single drink. A single drink = 1.5 oz. shot of 80 proof hard liquor, a 5 oz. glass of wine (12% alcohol) or a 12 ounce beer (5% alcohol).  See hours to zero chart below:

HOURS TO ZERO

Once behind the wheel of a car after consuming alcoholic beverages, ignorance of the law is not a excuse and the law enforcement officials do not discriminate even for those individuals that have never been in trouble.

Representing OWI Offenders in Macomb County

Getting charged with an OWI is a horrible ordeal. Being arrested and spending the night in jail is something that most of our clients have never experienced and don’t easily forget. Getting past these traumatic events requires an action plan by attorneys that specialize in handling  Macomb County drunk driving cases. There are different degrees of operating while intoxicated and various factors that can result in more serious criminal charges. A simple first offense OWI can turn into a “Super DUI” if the BAC is .17% or greater. Three lifetime offenses for operating under the influence is a felony that can carry five (5) years in prison. Our initial inquiry will usually consist of the following:

  • Prior record for driving under the influence and age of prior offenses.
  • Prior record for all other crimes, felonies and offenses involving alcohol and drugs.
  • Test results for alcohol, drugs.
  • Whether there was an accident involving property damage, injuries or death.
  • Was client cooperative with the police or involved in fleeing or resisting arrest.
  • Are any other charges being pursued such as fleeing, leaving scene of accident, driving while suspended.
  • Legal issues to explore: testing protocol, proof of operation, validity of traffic stop.

The Court Process in Macomb County

Drunk driving cases are crimes and the court process is governed by the rules of criminal procedure. A person charged with a crime is entitled to protection under the United States Constitution pursuant to the Bill of Rights. Whether it is a misdemeanor or felony drunk driving, the accused is entitled to discovery of all reports, test results, witness statements, accident reports and video/photographic evidence. In addition, the accused is entitled to a trial by jury. The following is a basic framework of the court process in Macomb County for OWI cases:

  • ARREST: Misdemeanor OWI: The accused is held in jail until BAC drops and then released with legal papers after posting a bond. Attorney can waive formal arraignment in court.
  • ARREST: Felony OWI: The accused is held in jail and appearance is required for formal arraignment before a judge or magistrate.
  • Arraignment: May be waived by attorney for misdemeanor OWI in most Macomb County Courts. An appearance is mandatory for felony OWI and an attorney’s presence is required. An attorney can often save a person from having to use the services of a bondsman. Upon arraignment, bond conditions are also imposed that testing and travel restrictions.
  • Blood Draw: The accused may be formally charged pending blood results or released and later charged when the blood test results are returned. It can take several weeks and sometimes months for blood tests to be returned.
  • Discovery: The process of obtaining all evidence in a criminal case. Discovery may also include an independent investigation, accident reconstruction, obtaining witness statements and obtaining independent analysis of breath or blood samples.
  • Pretrial Conference:pretrial conference is a meeting between the  defense attorney and the prosecutor. The majority of cases in Macomb County, 90% or more, are resolved after one or more pretrial conferences.
  • Probable Cause Conference/Preliminary Examination: Probable cause conference and preliminary examination are proceedings that are scheduled for crimes that are classified as felonies. Similar to a pretrial conference, a felony can be resolved at the probable cause conference stage of a criminal case.
  • Motions: When a judge is needed to address a matter before trial, a motion is filed to make the request. These requests are often necessary when the prosecutor will not dismiss a defective case or certain evidence should be admitted or excluded.
  • Plea Bargain: A plea bargain usually means that the original charge has been amended or reduced to something much more favorable. A plea bargain can occur at any stage of a criminal case even during a trial. The prosecutor will consult with any victim and arresting law enforcement officer to get approval for certain plea bargains. A plea bargain may fall apart if the victim or law enforcement officer do not
  • Trial: The prosecutor is required to prove the accused guilty beyond a reasonable doubt (this applies to all crimes and drunk driving).
  • Substance Abuse Evaluation and /or Presentence Report: A substance abuse evaluation is MANDATORY If the accused if found guilty or pleads guilty to operating while impaired or intoxicated. A presentence report is mandatory if convicted of any felony.
  • Sentencing Phase: At the sentence stage, the court will hear from the probation department, prosecutor, defense attorney, defendant and any victim that may be involved.

What about driving under the influence of marijuana?  

The question is whether someone can be charged with driving under the influence of marijuana since it i now legal in Michigan for medical  and recreational use. The answer to this question is YES.

Unlike drunk driving which has established legal limits (OWI = .08 or greater, Super OWI = .17 or greater) and equipment (breathalyzer) to measure an individual’s blood alcohol content (BAC), no such legal limits (THC nanogram levels) or testing instrument has been approved for marijuana. Currently, police utilize blood to test for marijuana and drugs. Future testing is likely to include breath equipment capable of testing for marijuana.

Michigan laws are in a state of flux regarding the offense operating under the influence of marijuana.  The court system is left with different rules for those that have medical marijuana cards and those without. In general, the blood test results (THC nanogram levels) alone are insufficient to convict without other proof of impairment. There are a multitude of legal challenges that can be made in these cases especially when the blood test does not account for active THC or there is a lapse in time when marijuana was last used.

What can someone charged with an OWI expect in the Macomb Courts?

Getting a dismissal is a top priority in every criminal or drunk driving case. Depending upon several factors in a given case, we may recommend fighting the case at trial, seeking a deviation request (for a reduction) or negotiating a plea bargain. Recent statistics indicate that approximately 90% or more of all criminal and drunk driving in the United States are resolved by plea bargaining. Our Macomb County district courts are no exception.  Plea bargaining can result in reduction in the charges as well as recommendations for leniency at the sentencing phase of the case.

The following are the most significant variables that come into play during negotiations (plea bargaining) and sentencing:  offender’s prior criminal and drunk driving record, test result scores and whether there was an accident. Being uncooperative with law enforcement officers during the arrest process can also be a negative barrier to negotiations and the final outcome of a criminal case.

In general, those with a bad record, have scored high on drug/alcohol tests and have been in accident (especially with an injury), will have a more challenging case than someone with a clean record, low test results and no accident.

-No prior record, no Accident, low BAC (under .16), no substance abuse problem, cooperative with police: I would call this best case scenario. A person charged in Macomb County with an OWI in this position is likely to get a reduction to “impaired driving” with a sentence as follows:

    • Fines/costs range from $900.00 to $1500.00, depending upon the court.
    • 1 year probation (a strong argument can be made for non-reporting probation.
    • Testing is likely in most Macomb County County courts.
    • Community service is unlikely in most Macomb County courts.
    • Attending some form of counseling is likely in most Most County courts (usually a short program consisting of 1-8 sessions).
    • Most Macomb County judges will consider modification of probation and testing requirements if there has been at least 6 months or more of compliance.

-Super OWI, High BAC (.17 or greater): Getting charged with OWI with a high blood alcohol content (BAC) of .17 or greater in Michigan means stiffer penalties and being labeled a “super drunk driver”. For whatever reason, we are seeing a greater number of clients charged with “super drunk driving”. In 2018, approximately 660 individuals were tested by  the police in Warren, Shelby Township, Sterling Heights and Clinton Township with 301 registering a BAC of .17 or greater. If convicted of “super drunk driving”, the offender is required to have a Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device (BAIID) on any vehicle he or she intends to operate for a period of 320 days after serving out a 45 day driver’s license suspension with no driving privileges.

The challenge in High BAC cases is to get the charge reduced to an offense with a lesser stigma and penalties, such as OWVI (operating while impaired) and to convince the judge that our client does not have a drinking problem. You increase your chances of doing so by getting an attorney that knows the local court system and has experience handling super OWI cases in Macomb County. Unfortunately, an attorney that does not know the system or lacks experience can be a costly mistake.

-OWI Second Offense within 7 Years: Along with possibility of jail, a second offender faces mandatory license revocation upon being convicted of a second drinking and driving offense within a period of 7 years or a third conviction within a 10 year period. There are NO driving privileges allowed during a period of revocation. For those facing license revocation, driving privileges can be saved if the person is accepted in a Sobriety Court program. The Sobriety Court program allows eligible individuals convicted of certain drunk driving offenses to obtain a restricted driver license with installation of an ignition interlock device (BAIID) on vehicles they drive and own. There are Sobriety Court programs in Clinton Township, Roseville and Warren and other courts that are in the process of getting grants for these programs. You may be eligible to apply for Sobriety Court in one of these courts if you are charged with an OWI second offense in a court that does not have a Sobriety Court program.

-FELONY, Third Lifetime Offense Operating While Intoxicated or Impaired: A person convicted of OWI with two prior offenses in his or her lifetime faces the following penalties:

  • $500 to $5,000 fine, and either of the following:
    • 1 to 5 years imprisonment
    • Probation, with 30 days to 1 year in jail.
  • 60 to 180 days community service.
  • Driver’s license revocation and denial if there are 2 convictions within 7 years or 3 convictions within 10 years. The minimum period of revocation and denial is 1 year (minimum of 5 years if there was a prior revocation within 7 years).
  • License plate confiscation.
  • Vehicle immobilization for 1 to 3 years, unless the vehicle is forfeited.
  • Possible vehicle forfeiture.
  • Vehicle registration denial.
  • 6 points added to the offender’s driving record.

You may think the odds are against you if you are charged with an OWI 3rd (felony) but that is not necessarily the case. If you find yourself in this position, you need to a solid action plan for the best chance to get the felony dropped down to a misdemeanor in the court system. In avoiding a felony, our clients have been able to avoid jail, retain their right to own firearms, retain driving privileges, retain valuable career licenses and not be labeled a felon!

Fighting for non-reporting probation, no testing, a limited counseling program (1 day class) and other leniency are realistic goals for individuals that qualify as isolated offenders and do not display a problem with alcohol.

Collateral Consequences of a OWI Conviction

  • CPL rights: A person convicted of a drunk driving offense (either OWI or impaired driving) will lose CPL rights for 3 years. There are no exceptions to this rule.
  • Felon may not Possess a firearm: A person convicted of a felony many not own or possess a firearm pursuant to both Federal and State of Michigan laws. Possession of a firearm by a felon constitutes a felony punishable by up too 10 years in prison.
  • Canada inadmissibility:  Based upon Canadian immigration laws, a person that has been convicted of driving while impaired by alcohol or drugs will probably be found criminally inadmissible to enter into Canada. Under certain circumstances, this harsh restriction may be overcome by showing of rehabilitation or obtaining a permit.
  • Police response costs:  In recent years, the costs incurred by the responding police agency are subject to collection for a person charged with a drinking and driving offense. I have seen these costs run anywhere from $300.00 to $600.00.
  • Expungement: The process of expungement (setting aside a conviction) is controlled by rigid rules in Michigan. Unfortunately, all traffic and drunk driving cases are ineligible for expungement. There are no exceptions to this rule.

Can a drunk driving case ever be completely dismissed?

I am sure you are wondering whether a drunk driving can be completely dismissed. There are various legal avenues that can be pursued which may result in a dismissal, major reduction or not guilty verdict of a drunk driving case which include: filing a deviation request, filing a motion to dismiss and/or proceeding to a trial.

Deviation request:  A deviation request is a formal request with supportive material to seek a favorable outcome when the policy of the prosecutor otherwise is against any plea bargain. Our firm utilizes deviation requests extensively in our criminal and drunk driving cases when a client has several positive factors and we feel that the prosecutor will consider a compassionate outcome.

Motion to Dismiss:  Many cases can be won prior to trial with a properly drafted and researched motion to dismiss. A motion to dismiss can be filed for a number of reasons including:

  • Suppression of test results (failure to follow protocol in the testing process).
  • Failure to establish an element of the crime (such as operation of the motor vehicle, parked vehicle).
  • Invalid traffic stop.

A motion to dismiss may also result in a plea bargain when the prosecutor does not want to run the risk of holding a hearing on a motion to dismiss.

Trial: Any person accused of a crime, including drunk driving offense, is afforded the right to a trial by the 6th Amendment to the United States Constitution. A trial may be held before a judge or jury. The judge or jury  is required to return a verdict of not guilty unless the case is proven beyond a reasonable doubt.

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The stigma and embarrassment associated with a conviction for indecent exposure or gross indecency can last a lifetime. Behavior associated with sexually related crimes is no longer just limited to adult offenders. Juveniles are becoming more sexually active than at any other time with the availability of sexually explicit content on the internet. In addition, much of what occurs in public places is subject to video surveillance which can be preserved as evidence against individuals charged with these crimes. In defending those charged under these statutes, our Macomb County criminal defense attorneys may recommend that our clients engage in counseling as a proactive measure. A positive counseling report can be utilized in the court system to seek a favorable resolution and validate that a particular client is not a predator, is not likely to re-offend and is not a risk to the public or children. Many cases that we have handled in our Macomb County Courts, especially for indecent exposure, qualify as isolated incidents with a low likelihood of being repeated. However,  certain compulsive behavior, such as sex addiction or exhibitionist disorder, may require a regimen of long term counseling.

Indecent Exposure

The offense of indecent exposure is a misdemeanor. MCL 750.335a defines the conduct and penalty for the offense of indecent exposure in Michigan as follows:

(1)  A person shall not knowingly make any open or indecent exposure of his or her person or of the person of another.

(2)  A person who violates subsection (1) is guilty of a crime, as follows:

(a) Except as provided in subdivision (b) or (c), the person is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 1 year, or a fine of not more than $1,000.00, or both.

(b) If the person was fondling his or her genitals, pubic area, buttocks, or, if the person is female, breasts, while violating subsection (1), the person is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 2 years or a fine of not more than $2,000.00, or both.

(c) If the person was at the time of the violation a sexually delinquent person, the violation is punishable by imprisonment for an indeterminate term, the minimum of which is 1 day and the maximum of which is life.

Gross indecency is a Felony

The offense of gross indecency is serious felony which can carry 5 years in prison. The offense is covered by MCL 750.338b and provides as follows:

Any male person who, in public or in private, commits or is a party to the commission of any act of gross indecency with a female person shall be guilty of a felony, punishable as provided in this section. Any female person who, in public or in private, commits or is a party to the commission of any act of gross indecency with a male person shall be guilty of a felony punishable as provided in this section. Any person who procures or attempts to procure the commission of any act of gross indecency by and between any male person and any female person shall be guilty of a felony punishable as provided in this section. Any person convicted of a felony as provided in this section shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for not more than 5 years, or by a fine of not more than $2,500.00, or if such person was at the time of the said offense a sexually delinquent person, may be punishable by imprisonment in the state prison for an indeterminate term, the minimum of which shall be 1 day and the maximum of which shall be life.

Maximum Penalty of Life in Prison if Labeled a Sexually Delinquent Person

Under certain circumstances, indecent exposure or gross indecency can be punished as a felony which can carry a maximum term of life in prison if committed by someone who is classified as a sexually delinquent person. Pursuant to MCL 750.10a, the term “sexually delinquent person”, shall mean any person whose sexual behavior is characterized by repetitive or compulsive acts which indicate a disregard of consequences or the recognized rights of others, or by the use of force upon another person in attempting sex relations of either a heterosexual or homosexual nature, or by the commission of sexual aggressions against children under the age of 16.

Identifying Reasons for Deviant Sexual Behavior

Public displays of nudity may constitute an isolated incident or occur as the result of intoxication.  Indecent exposure in a public place may also be a sign of a psychological problem (exhibitionist). The offense of gross indecency is a more serious offense. Gross indecency cases usually involve a sex act in a public place. In either case, our firm may recommend a counselor for an evaluation and recommendation.

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Drug Crimes, Assault Crimes, Theft Crimes Highest on the List of Most Frequent Felonies in Michigan

Being accused or charged with any crime, misdemeanor or felony, is a serious matter requiring the expertise of a criminal defense lawyer. A crime classified as a felony is invariably worse than a petty crime or misdemeanor. A felony is defined as an offense that can carry more than 1 year in jail up to life in prison. If the offense carries 1 year or less in jail, it is classified as a misdemeanor.  In addition to the possibility of jail/imprisonment, felonies have other consequences including: loss of rights to own or possess firearms, up to 5 years probation, possible term of imprisonment, international travel restrictions and the stigma of a felony conviction.

While researching cases, we came across an  article written by the Michigan Bar Association regarding the Top 50 Felonies Most Frequently Charged in Michigan in the State of Michigan. This list of cases also is consistent with the caseload that our Macomb County criminal defense lawyers see on the dockets of courts located in Macomb, Oakland, Wayne and St. Clair counties.

With more than 40 years experience specializing in criminal defense, I can say that the majority of our clients facing felony charges have never committed a prior felony and the underlying conduct supporting the felony charge does not involve egregious misbehavior.  Nonetheless, a felony charge is possible even for offenses involving simple possession or when a theft involves property valued greater than $1,000.00.

Top Felonies in the Metro-Detroit Courts

Pursuant to the Michigan Sentencing Guidelines, felonies are broken down into categories that determine the accompanying sentence. Punishment for each class is listed below:

  • Class A – Life imprisonment
  • Class B – Up to 20 years in prison
  • Class C – Up to 15 years in prison
  • Class D – Up to 10 years in prison
  • Class E – Up to 5 years in prison
  • Class F – Up to 4 years in prison
  • Class G – Up to 2 years in prison
  • Class H – Jail or other intermediate sanctions, such as fines

 

Below is a list of the most prevalent felony crimes that we routinely handle in the Metro-Detroit courts and that also that fall within the top 50 felonies in Michigan.

Crime Statistics for Macomb County

The Michigan State Police maintains annual crime reporting statistics for each county in the State of Michigan. For 2017, approximately 50,000 crimes were reported in Macomb County. As criminal defense attorneys in Macomb County, these statistics are meaningful in various ways. The economy, social influences (“me too”), crime waves and police practices are all factors that can have a bearing on crime reporting. Statistics indicate that all larcenies constitute the largest number of crimes reported. Nearly 10,000 larceny related crimes reported which include the following:

  • Larceny from a building
  • Larceny from a motor vehicle
  • Larceny misdemeanors (under $1,000) and Larceny felonies (over $1,000)
  • Theft of motor vehicle parts and accessories

Retail fraud (shoplifting) offenses are not included in the above statistic. Separately, approximately 2,500 retail fraud cases were reported in Macomb County for 2017. Retail fraud is classified as a misdemeanor when the amount involved is under $1,000 and a felony if the amount involved is $1,000 or more. The cities in Macomb County that reported the highest number of retail fraud for 2017 were: Roseville (536), Warren (463), Sterling Heights (425), Chesterfield Township (265)  and Clinton Township (209). The numbers for these cities are not surprising considering that these areas all have large retail centers and stores (Target, Meijer, Kohl’s, Costco, Sam’s, Walmart) within their jurisdiction.

Drug Residue or $1.00 more than $999.00 May Lead to a Felony Charge!

DRUG CRIMES: Simple possession of drugs tops the list of felony crimes in Michigan. The drug crime of possession of marijuana is classified as a misdemeanor.  As I have stated, a felony charge may be lodged for unintended behavior. For example, a person may be charged with felony possession of drugs when a police search reveals a minuscule quantity of drug residue. Felony charges can be prosecuted even though the drug residue is unusable, un-measurable and is scraped from a pipe or from the carpet of a vehicle. In researching this matter, I found that the prosecutor in Harris County, Texas has a adopted a policy to avoid prosecuting those found with drug residue. While this is a step in the right direction, Michigan has not adopted this policy. In addition to residue cases, drug charges may be brought against an innocent passenger of a motor vehicle because drugs are found in a compartment or area of the vehicle within reach, possession or view of the passenger(s).

THEFT & PROPERTY CRIMES: Several other felony crimes fall within the theft offense, or property crime category, including retail fraud, embezzlement, credit card fraud, uttering and publishing. A crime can be elevated from a misdemeanor to a felony without any intent or deliberation to wind up in that position. For example, if a theft related offense (embezzlement, retail fraud 1st degree) involves a claim of loss of $1,000.00 or more, the prosecutor will bring a felony charge. If the amount of loss is $999.00 or less, it is a misdemeanor. The danger and concern that exists is when the alleged victim makes a claim that is greater than the actual loss. Not all property crimes are dependent upon the property value. Crimes such as uttering and publishing, credit card fraud, larceny in a building, larceny from a motor vehicle constitute felonies without regard to the value of property misappropriated. Michigan State Police statistics for 2017 indicate that more than 7,000 crimes relating to larceny were reported in Macomb County.

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Joe-Liberty-Selfie-for-blogAuthor: Joseph A. Campbell


Imagine this scenario: Your child is riding along M-59, Big Beaver, or Woodward Avenue, in a car with friends going out to dinner, but your child is not the driver. Then, the vehicle gets pulled over because the driver violated a traffic law. Upon approaching the vehicle, the police officer claims that he can smell a hint of marijuana and searches the vehicle. (The smell of marijuana alone can provide probable cause to justify a search).  The police officer finds marijuana in the center console of the vehicle (or other compartment) and arrests everyone, including your child, regardless of the fact that the marijuana was not theirs.

girl-smokign-weed-in-car-for-blog
As a caring parent, you’d wonder whether your child could legally be charged with possession of marijuana even though it wasn’t theirs or they didn’t use it? The short but unfortunate answer is: Yes, they can. Charges for possession may be brought against passengers who do not legally own the marijuana (or other drugs), do not have it in their personal possession, and do not know that it is somewhere within the vehicle.

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