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READ THIS PARAGRAPH even if you don’t read anything else on this page!

This is a must read if you are thinking about obtaining a gun or a Concealed Pistol License. Obtaining a Concealed Pistol License (CPL) is easy. For those meeting CPL eligibility, attending a CPL class and shooting your firearm at a close range target is about all that is required. However, once you obtain a CPL, you will need to be constantly vigilant when you are carrying your firearm, handling your firearm and storing your firearm. I would urge anyone that has a Concealed Pistol License (CPL) to get a lawyer on retainer for any possible predicaments or advice as necessary with issues that may be on the horizon. We believe that most CPL holders are responsible and never have a desire to use a firearm against another human being unless absolutely necessary for self-defense. However, knowing when you can act in self-defense and what to do if you use a firearm are of the utmost importance if you are thinking about carrying a firearm. If you use a gun against another person, the police will conduct an investigation according to assault and homicide protocol. You may be the one that ends up calling the police if nobody else is around. The 911 recording will be kept as evidence. Whatever you say on that 911 call could be the difference between winning a trial on self-defense grounds or getting convicted of a felony. The police will also take witness statements from the friends of the bad guy. What do you they will say about the incident? In addition to the police, if you draw your gun and shoot someone, family members of the bad guy will attempt to vilify you and put pressure on the police and prosecutor to take criminal action for an assault or a homicide crime even though you acted in justifiable self-defense.

Potential criminal charges for drawing or using a firearm against another person

If you carry a concealed weapon (CCW) without a permit, it is a felony punishable by up to five (5) years in prison. Whether you have a permit to carry or not, once a gun is drawn in the presence of another person, there is the possibility of being charged with an assault crime and/or firearm crime, such as:

  • Assault with a dangerous weapon
  • Assault with intent to do great bodily harm
  • Assault with intent to murder
  • Homicide
  • Intentionally discharging a firearm aimed without malice
  • Possession a firearm on prohibited premises
  • Brandishing a firearm
  • Reckless discharge of a firearm
  • Possession of firearm under the influence

A criminal defense lawyer can estimate whether you will be treated as a hero or a criminal for using a firearm against another person. It is important for anyone with a CPL to know things such as whether it is permissible or a crime to use a gun from a moving vehicle or whether you can draw your weapon to scare off an annoying person.

Basic rules of self-defense

Michigan is a Castle Doctrine state and has a “stand your ground” law. A person may use deadly force, with no duty to retreat anywhere he or she has the legal right to be. Any person who uses a gun legitimately in self-defense has immunity from civil liability.

Use of Non-deadly Force: An individual not engaged in the commission of a crime may use non-deadly force against another individual anywhere he or she has the legal right to be with no duty to retreat if the person honestly and reasonably believes that the use of that force is necessary to defend himself or herself or another individual from the imminent unlawful use of force by another individual.

Use of Deadly Force: An individual not engaged in the commission of a crime may use deadly force against another individual anywhere he or she has the legal right to be with no duty to retreat if the person honestly and reasonably believes that the use of that force is necessary to prevent:

  • Imminent death of or imminent great bodily harm to himself or herself or to another individual; or
  • Imminent sexual assault of himself or herself or of another individual.

Be a student and practice the art of self-defense

It is important to continuously practice using a firearm and research various firearm and self-defense scenarios that you might encounter. It is also wise to consider self-defense training for situations when a firearm is not appropriate or your firearm is not readily accessible.

There is no such thing as “one size fits all” when it comes to self-defense. Fortunately, there are numerous outstanding resources and courses available to keep yourself sharp and prepared to defend yourself should the need arise.  The internet is a vast source of every imaginable self-defense situation that you possibly could encounter:

There are countless scenarios that you need to consider when acting in self-defense either with or without a firearm. Do your research on common self-defense situations. Also, ask your lawyer about matters that might seem obscure but that could arise such as whether it is ever appropriate to use your firearm from a moving vehicle against another person in a moving vehicle. Here is what we say in our website about using a firearm from a moving vehicle:

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CPL Eligibility in Michigan

It’s a felony in Michigan to carry a concealed pistol on your person or in a motor vehicle without a CPL. However, if you meet the legal requirements, you are entitled to obtain a license to carry a concealed pistol (CPL). An applicant for a Michigan CPL must:

  1. Be at least 21 years of age.
  2. Be a citizen of the United States or an alien lawfully admitted into the United States.
  3. Be a legal resident of Michigan and reside in Michigan for at least six-months immediately prior to application.  An applicant is a resident of Michigan if one of the following applies: possesses a valid Michigan driver’s license or official personal identification card or is lawfully registered to vote in Michigan.

Note: The county clerk shall waive the six-month residency requirement: for an emergency license, if the applicant is a petitioner for a personal protection order or the county sheriff determines that there is clear and convincing evidence to believe that the safety of the applicant or the safety of a member of the applicant’s family or household is endangered by the applicant’s inability to immediately obtain a license to carry a concealed pistol.

  1. Successfully completing an appropriate pistol safety training course or class.
  2. Not be subject to an order or disposition for any of the following:
  • Involuntary hospitalization or involuntary alternative treatment.
  • Legal incapacitation.
  • Personal protection order.
  • Bond or conditional release prohibiting purchase or possession of a firearm.
  • Finding of not guilty by reason of insanity.
  1. Not be prohibited from possessing, using, transporting, selling, purchasing, carrying, shipping, receiving, or distributing a firearm under MCL 750.224f.
  2. Have never been convicted of a felony in Michigan or elsewhere, and a felony charge against the applicant is not pending in Michigan or elsewhere at the time he or she applies for a CPL.
  3. Have not been dishonorably discharged from the United States Armed Forces.

Gun rights impacted by misdemeanor and felony convictions

 Pursuant to Michigan and federal law, you cannot own or possess any firearm (pistol or rifle) with any felony conviction. If you are charged with a felony, getting a felony criminal defense lawyer to fight the case is the key to preserving your Second Amendment rights. Misdemeanor convictions are a problem for a person trying to get a CPL. The right to obtain a CPL is denied 3 to 8 years upon conviction of selected misdemeanors.  Misdemeanor representation is crucial if you are charged with a misdemeanor under state law or local ordinance and you value your criminal record and/or CPL rights. There are many ways that a criminal defense lawyer can fight to save your record and gun rights. MCL

-8-year period of denial misdemeanors: A person convicted of any of the following common offenses is required to wait eight (8) years before applying for a CPL:

  • MCL 257.617a, failing to stop when involved in a personal injury accident
  • MCL 257.625, operating while intoxicated punishable as a second offense
  • MCL 257.626, reckless driving
  • MCL 257.904(1), DWLS punishable as a second offense
  • MCL 750.81, assault or domestic assault
  • MCL 750.81a(1) or (2), aggravated assault or aggravated domestic assault
  • MCL 750.115, breaking and entering or entering without breaking
  • MCL 750.136b(7), fourth-degree child abuse
  • MCL 750.226a, sale or possession of a switchblade
  • MCL 750.227c, improper transporting or possessing a loaded firearm in or upon a vehicle
  • MCL 750.232, failure to register the purchase of a firearm or a firearm component
  • MCL 750.232a, improperly obtaining a pistol, making a false statement on an application to purchase a pistol,
  • MCL 750.233, intentionally pointing or aiming a firearm without malice
  • MCL 750.234, discharging a firearm while intentionally aimed without malice
  • MCL 750.234d, possessing a firearm on prohibited premises
  • MCL 750.234e, brandishing a firearm in public
  • MCL 750.234f, possession of a firearm in public by an individual less than 18 years of age
  • MCL 750.235, discharging a firearm pointed or aimed intentionally without malice causing injury
  • MCL 750.237, possessing or discharging a firearm while under the influence
  • MCL 750.237a, weapon-free school zone violation
  • MCL 750.335a, indecent exposure
  • MCL 750.411h, stalking
  • MCL 750.520e, fourth-degree criminal sexual conduct
  • MCL 752.861, careless, reckless, or negligent use of a firearm resulting in injury or death
  • MCL 752.862, careless, reckless, or negligent use of a firearm resulting in property damage
  • MCL 752.863a, reckless discharge of a firearm

-3-year period of denial misdemeanors:  A person convicted of any of the following common offenses is required to wait eight (8) years before applying for a CPL:

  • MCL 257.625, operating while intoxicated, visibly impaired, under 21 years of age with any bodily alcohol content, or with any presence of a Schedule 1 controlled substance or cocaine
  • MCL 257.625a, refusal of commercial motor vehicle operator to submit to a preliminary chemical breath test
  • MCL 257.625k, ignition interlock device reporting violation
  • MCL 257.625l, circumventing or tampering with an ignition interlocking device
  • MCL 333.7401 to 333.7461, controlled substance violation
  • MCL 750.167, disorderly person
  • MCL 750.174, embezzlement
  • MCL 750.218, false pretenses with intent to defraud or cheat
  • MCL 750.356, larceny
  • MCL 750.356d, retail fraud second or third degree
  • MCL 750.359, larceny from vacant structure or building
  • MCL 750.362, larceny by conversion
  • MCL 750.362a, refuse or neglect to return vehicle, trailer, or other tangible property delivered on a rental or lease basis with intent to defraud the lessor
  • MCL 750.377a, malicious destruction of personal property
  • MCL 750.380, malicious destruction of real property
  • MCL 750.535, receiving, possessing or concealing stolen, embezzled, or converted property
  • MCL 750.540e, malicious use of service provided by telecommunications service provider

Additional misdemeanors that will result in CPL denial periods are listed at MCL 28.425b.

Pistol Free Zones

Pursuant to  MCL 28.425o, it is illegal for a person with a CPL to carry a pistol at the following places:

  • School property except while dropping off or picking up a student.
  • Day care center, child caring agency, or public or private child placing agency,
  • Sports arena or stadium,
    A tavern where the primary source of income is the sale of alcoholic liquor by the glass consumed on the premises,
  • Any property or facility owned or operated by a church, synagogue, mosque, temple, or other place of worship, unless the presiding official allows concealed weapons.
  • An entertainment facility that has a seating capacity of 2,500 or more,
  • Hospital,
  • Dormitory or classroom of a community college, college, or university,
  • Casino

Furthermore, per Administrative Order 2001-1 of the Michigan Supreme Court:

  • “Weapons are not permitted in any courtroom, office, or other space used for official court business or by judicial employees unless the chief judge or other person designated by the chief judge has given prior approval consistent with the court’s written policy.”

The following penalties may also be imposed for carrying a concealed weapon in a pistol free zone:

  • First offense:  State Civil Infraction, $500 fine, CPL permit suspended 6 months
  • Second offense:  90-day misdemeanor, $1000 fine, CPL permit revoked
  • Third and subsequent offenses:  4-year felony, $5000 fine, CPL permit revoked

Declaring your CPL when confronted or pulled over by the police

Pursuant to MCL 28.425f, an individual that is licensed to carry a concealed weapon shall carry his or her CPL and state issued driver license or personal identification card while carrying a concealed weapon. Upon being confronted (pulled over, etc.), the individual carrying a concealed pistol shall show both pieces of identification to the peace officer and IMMEDIATELY disclose that he or she is carrying a concealed pistol on his or her person or in his or her vehicle.  The penalty for lack of identification is a state civil infraction. The penalty for failing to immediately disclose (carrying a firearm) is civil infraction subject to the following:

  • For a first offense, by a fine of $500.00 and by the individual’s license to carry a concealed pistol being suspended for 6 months.
  • For a subsequent offense within 3 years of a prior offense, by a fine of $1,000.00 and by the individual’s license to carry a concealed pistol being revoked.

Brandishing a firearm

CPL holders need to know that a firearm should not be produced unless absolutely necessary and in justifiable self-defense. Brandishing a firearm is a crime that involves production of a firearm for the purpose of intimidation but does not amount to aiming or an assault crime. MCL 750.234e, provides that a person shall not willfully and knowingly brandish a firearm in public, subject to the following exceptions:

  • A peace officer lawfully performing his or her duties as a peace officer.
  • A person lawfully acting in self-defense or defense of another under the self-defense act.

The federal definition of brandishing is as follows:  to display all or part of the firearm, or otherwise make the presence of the firearm known to another person, in order to intimidate that person, regardless of whether the firearm is directly visible to that person.

Brandishing a firearm is a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 90 days, or a fine of not more than $100.00, or both. In addition, a person convicted of brandishing will be denied the right to apply for a CPL for 8 years.

It is a good practice to be a private person about your firearms and your CPL. Don’t flaunt your firearm or show off.  Once a person knows that you have a firearm, it is very easy to be accused of brandishing or some other crime that can jeopardize your record and your rights. Unfortunately, fighting a lie or proving a negative is not the easiest thing to do.

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With over 50 years of combined criminal defense experience, ABDO LAW specializes in expunging and setting aside prior convictions for all folks eligible across Michigan. Historically, criminal records have held many Michiganders in perpetual poverty. Contrarily, successful expungement proceedings have created economic opportunity and full participation in Michigan’s economy and society for clients of ABDO LAW.

According to a 2020 Harvard Law Review article, only 6.5% of those legally eligible for an expungement in Michigan obtain it within 5 years of eligibility. Moreover, those who successfully obtain an expungement / set aside a conviction experience a substantial increase in their wage and employment trajectories. On average, within 1 year, wages go up by over 22% versus the pre-expungement trajectory.

Deep within Abdo Law’s core values are closely held beliefs that people deserve 2nd chances, people are able to change for the better, and the law is alive to accommodate personal and societal changes. With a 100% success rate, expungement proceedings are one way in which Abdo Law lives out their core beliefs.

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A traffic crash is a traumatic event. Fear and panic are just a few reasons why a driver might leave the scene of an accident. Other reasons are usually based upon legal predicaments such as being intoxicated, driving on a suspended license, facing a parole or probation violation or driving without insurance.  

Leaving the scene of an accident is a crime in Michigan

In Michigan, traffic offenses can be charged as civil infractions or as crimes. The offense of leaving the scene of an accident (aka: failing to give identification at the scene of a crash) is charged as a crime in Michigan. Along with drunk driving, leaving the scene of an accident is also one of the most prevalent misdemeanor cases that is charged in Macomb County. Leaving the scene of an accident is a serious crime that can carry jail, a fine, court costs and 6 points. Leaving the scene of an accident causing an injury is more serious than leaving the scene of an accident causing only property damage. Leaving the scene of an accident cannot be expunged and will have a huge impact on future insurance premiums. A criminal record can lead to jeopardize personal rights  such as right to travel into Canada or right to obtain a concealed permit to carry a handgun/CPL. A criminal offense or pattern of criminal behavior can also lead to deportation for non-US citizens. Pleading guilty to the offense of leaving the scene of an accident without a lawyer is a sure way to wind up with major regrets. In this publication, and others (Hiring a Lawyer to Fight Your Traffic Ticket: A Wise Long Term Investment), we explain why you should be proactive and get a lawyer if you are facing any criminal or non-criminal offense.

We have extensive experience handling misdemeanor and felony criminal and traffic matters in every Macomb County District Court:

Based upon our experience, we are providing you with this publication and information regarding the offense of “leaving the scene of an accident”.

Duties following an accident

A driver’s duties following an accident are set forth in MCL 257.619.

The driver of a vehicle who knows or who has reason to believe that he or she has been involved in an accident with an individual or with another vehicle that is operated or attended by another individual shall do all of the following:

  (a) Give his or her name and address, and the registration number of the vehicle he or she is operating, including the name and address of the owner, to a police officer, the individual struck, or the driver or occupants of the vehicle with which he or she has collided.
  (b) Exhibit his or her operator’s or chauffeur’s license to a police officer, individual struck, or the driver or occupants of the vehicle with which he or she has collided.
  (c) Render to any individual injured in the accident reasonable assistance in securing medical aid or arrange for or provide transportation to any injured individual.

Failing to comply with these duties or failing to stop and give identification at the scene of a crash or leaving the scene of an accident can result in criminal penalties along with administrative sanctions which are imposed by the Michigan Secretary of State.

Penalties for leaving the scene of an accident 

Jail-time, losing your license, insurance issues and getting stuck in the court system for up to 2 years while on probation are all possible penalties for leaving the scene of an accident. Leaving the scene of an accident causing a personal injury can carry up to 1 year in jail.
Subject to a few exceptions, it is a crime to leave the scene of an accident. MCL 257.618 provides as follows:
(1) The driver of a vehicle who knows or who has reason to believe that he has been involved in an accident upon public or private property that is open to travel by the public shall immediately stop his or her vehicle at the scene of the accident and shall remain there until the requirements of section 619 are fulfilled or immediately report the accident to the nearest or most convenient police agency or officer to fulfill the requirements of section 619(a) and (b) if there is a reasonable and honest belief that remaining at the scene will result in further harm. The stop shall be made without obstructing traffic more than is necessary.
(2) If an individual violates the requirements of subsection (1) and the accident results in damage to a vehicle operated by or attended by any individual, the individual is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 90 days or a fine of not more than $100.00, or both.
Contacting a Macomb County criminal defense lawyer should be your first order of business if you are charged with leaving the scene of an accident or if you expect to be charged, have abandoned your vehicle or otherwise fled from the scene of an accident. It is a defense to this crime if a person was not aware that an accident occurred or remaining at the scene will result in further harm or obstruct traffic more than is necessary.

Driving off after accident, leaving disabled vehicle at the scene

The police are not stupid. When the police find a disabled and abandoned vehicle that is not being claimed until the next day, they are automatically suspicious that the driver was drunk, left the scene to avoid being tested for alcohol and waited to claim the vehicle until after alcohol levels dropped below the legal limit for DUI. The police will typically put a hold on the vehicle until it is claimed and a statement is made by the owner/driver. This is where most think that they will beat the system by claiming that the vehicle was stolen or that is was taken by some unknown person that they met during the prior evening. Believe me, we have seen it all and so have the police. Contacting the police before retaining a lawyer in this scenario is a big mistake. It is far better to let the lawyer do damage control and do all of the talking rather than get caught lying to the police and charged with filing a false police report which may be charged as a felony or misdemeanor depending upon the circumstances.

Some other actual examples of cases where the police have caught someone leaving the scene of an accident:

  • Police follow trail of leaking transmission fluid leading to the vehicle involved in an accident.
  • Police follow snow tracks in a subdivision to the home where the vehicle was driven following an accident.
  • Police obtain plate number from a witness at the scene of an accident.

Leaving the scene to avoid getting charged with drunk driving

Rather than get charged with drunk driving, an intoxicated person may choose to leave the scene of an accident and deal with the aftermath once sobriety is established. This all becomes an extremely frustrating experience for the offender which involves lies to family members, the police and the insurance company along with implicating friends that may be questioned in the future. Drunk driving is not the only reason that is given as the reason for leaving the scene of an accident. Other common reasons include driving with no insurance, driving while license suspended or because of an outstanding arrest warrant. Let us help you get your life under control if you have left the scene of an accident. DO NOT call the police and your insurance company and say that your car has been stolen. You will merely be exposing yourself to a felony charge and be asked to give more information such as the names of people that were with you and whether you consumed alcohol.

Leaving the scene and fleeing the police

The offense of leaving the scene of an accident is a misdemeanor. If leaving the scene also involves a police chase, the offender faces more serious charges known as fleeing and eluding which constitutes a felony.

What to do if you are charged or have left the scene

If you have received a citation for leaving the scene of an accident, contact a lawyer for representation in the court system. If you freaking out after leaving the scene of an accident and haven’t been caught yet, contact a lawyer to help you sort it out and establish a plan to cover the following matters:

  • Whether or not you should talk to the police.
  • Whether you should file an insurance claim.
  • How the accident is reported to the insurance company.
  • Getting your car out of the impound.
  • Dealing with the court system (arraignment, bond, pretrial conference, trial).

NO, our attorneys will not tell the police that you were high or drunk the night before. We will give you a solid plan to deal with the police and the insurance company without ever getting charged with a DUI.

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George-Floyd

Minneapolis police officer shown kneeling on George Floyd’s neck as Floyd pleaded for help.

Imaginary lines in space decide many of the rights and obligations of American life. These boundary lines have tremendous effects on our sense of self and to whom we feel connected. Far more than just emotional and psychological consequences flow from where we live and how we identify. (Read Democratic Education and Local School Governance.) In America, geography and identity determine one’s legal power and opportunity.

3 recently recorded incidents of unarmed black men being ridiculed or killed in America have surfaced online and sent communities across both coasts pleading for justice.  The unfortunate stories of Ahmaud Arbery, Christian Cooper, and George Floyd during COVID provides powerful tools for Americans to reflect on our interconnectedness with fellow Americans from different backgrounds and geography.

COVID-19-Advocates-scaled

Attorney Joseph Campbell wearing personal protective equipment while advocating in 41A District Court of Shelby Township for a client facing life in prison amidst global coronavirus pandemic.

From Washington D.C. to Washington Township, MI, the global coronavirus outbreak has triggered a state of emergency response nationwide. On March 10, Michigan Governor Gretchen Whitmer announced the closure of all K–12 school buildings statewide until April 5. Then, on March 16, Michigan bars, restaurants, entertainment venues, and other businesses were ordered to partially close for two weeks. Thereafter, events and gatherings of more than 50 people were banned from March 17 – April 5. Finally on March 24, Executive Order No. 2020-21, a statewide stay-at-home order was issued until April 13 for all Michiganders, limiting all non-essential travel and discontinuing all non-essential business services and operations. Among other things, Executive Order No. 2020-21, Michigan’s ‘Stay Home, Stay Safe’ order directs all Michiganders to stay home except under very limited circumstances. 

Abdo Law encourages all Michigan residents to comply with the ‘Stay Home, Stay Safe’ order when leaving their residence, as failing to comply with Executive Order No. 2020-21 could result in a $500 fine and/or 90 days in jail for each violation. Pursuant to Section 14, a willful violation of the Order will result in a criminal misdemeanor.  Section 14 cites to MCL 10.33 and MCL 30.405(3), which state, respectively:

EMERGENCY POWERS OF GOVERNOR (EXCERPT)

Act 302 of 1945; 10.33 Violation; misdemeanor.

Sec. 3. The violation of any such orders, rules and regulations made in conformity with this act shall be punishable as a misdemeanor, where such order, rule or regulation states that the violation thereof shall constitute a misdemeanor.

– – – – –

EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT ACT (EXCERPT)

Act 390 of 1976

(3) A person who willfully disobeys or interferes with the implementation of a rule, order, or directive issued by the governor pursuant to this section is guilty of a misdemeanor.

– – – – –

What’s more, Michigan Attorney General Dana Nessel made a recent press release reminding residents that calls regarding failing to comply with the ‘Stay Home, Stay Safe’ order should go to local law enforcement. Michigan State Police and local police departments enforcement of complying with Executive Order No. 2020-21 have varied from asking drivers why they’re out in public to asking for proof of employment through an employee issued I.D. card, while other officers are going as far as following drivers to their stated location and citing criminal misdemeanors. On March 30, Michigan State Police stated via Twitter that they are not conducting random traffic stops and their troopers do not carry thermometers.

Over this past weekend, an unfortunate 1,000+ new confirmed coronavirus cases were reported in Michigan, with coronavirus cases now totaling 4,658 while our death toll has painfully risen to 111. Each of Metro Detroit’s tri-counties now has more than 500 coronavirus cases, with Wayne County at 938 cases, Oakland County at 1,018 cases, and Macomb County at 524 total cases.

Not much is clear at this point for the majority of Michiganders. We’ve been ordered to stay home. We’re even supposed to stay 6 feet away from those we live with. These are challenging times and every day is unprecedented. While we know the strength and grit of residents in Metro Detroit, we encourage community members to comply with our statewide stay-at-home order. COVID-19 does not discriminate and it is clearly deadly. Abdo Law respects and salutes Michigan’s first responders, grocers, and other critical infrastructure workers as they risk everything on a daily basis. Abdo Law asks individuals within Metro Detroit that maintain a healthy lifestyle to extend a helping hand for their neighbors with compromised conditions. Reach out and coordinate with elders in our community to retrieve grocery and other items necessary to sustain or protect their lives. 

Will Michigan families get together this Easter? If not together in person, will Easter dinner be shared with families over Facetime or Zoom together? We are optimistic while extent of impact and timeframe of COVID-19’s shutdown remains speculative for most of society. Undoubtedly, all persons throughout Michigan are impacted by the novel coronavirus. Listed below are helpful links and important exceptions to Executive Order No. 2020-21.

COVID-19, Centers for Disease Prevention and Control 

Michigan Executive Order 2020-21 (COVID-19)

Coronavirus – Critical Infrastructure Workers

Sunday, March 29: Latest developments on coronavirus in Michigan

 

Exceptions to Michigan’s ‘Stay Home, Stay Safe’ Executive Order No. 2020-21

  1. Individuals may leave their home or place of residence, and travel as necessary: 
  • To engage in outdoor activity, including walking, hiking, running, cycling, or any other recreational activity consistent with remaining at least six feet from people from outside the individual’s household.
  • To perform their jobs as critical infrastructure workers after being so designated by their employers. (Critical infrastructure workers who need not be designated under section 5(a) may leave their home for work without a designation.)
  • To conduct minimum basic operations, as described in section 4(b), after being designated to perform such work by their employers.
  • To perform necessary government activities, as described in section 6.
  • To perform tasks that are necessary to their health and safety, or to the health and safety of their family or household members (including pets). Individuals may, for example, leave the home or place of residence to secure medication or to seek medical or dental care that is necessary to address a medical emergency or to preserve the health and safety of a household or family member (including procedures that, in accordance with a duly implemented nonessential procedures postponement plan, have not been postponed).
  • To obtain necessary services or supplies for themselves, their family or household members, and their vehicles. Individuals must secure such services or supplies via delivery to the maximum extent possible. As needed, however, individuals may leave the home or place of residence to purchase groceries, take-out food, gasoline, needed medical supplies, and any other products necessary to maintain the safety, sanitation, and basic operation of their residences.
  • To care for a family member or a family member’s pet in another household.
  • To care for minors, dependents, the elderly, persons with disabilities, or other vulnerable persons.
  • To visit an individual under the care of a health care facility, residential care facility, or congregate care facility, to the extent otherwise permitted.
  • To attend legal proceedings or hearings for essential or emergency purposes as ordered by a court.
  • To work or volunteer for businesses or operations (including both and religious and secular nonprofit organizations) that provide food, shelter, and other necessities of life for economically disadvantaged or otherwise needy individuals, individuals who need assistance as a result of this emergency, and people with disabilities.
  • Individuals may also travel: 
  1. To return to a home or place of residence from outside this state. 
  2. To leave this state for a home or residence elsewhere.
  3. To travel between two residences in this state. 

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Joe-Liberty-Selfie-for-blogAuthor: Joseph A. Campbell


Imagine this scenario: Your child is riding along M-59, Big Beaver, or Woodward Avenue, in a car with friends going out to dinner, but your child is not the driver. Then, the vehicle gets pulled over because the driver violated a traffic law. Upon approaching the vehicle, the police officer claims that he can smell a hint of marijuana and searches the vehicle. (The smell of marijuana alone can provide probable cause to justify a search).  The police officer finds marijuana in the center console of the vehicle (or other compartment) and arrests everyone, including your child, regardless of the fact that the marijuana was not theirs.

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As a caring parent, you’d wonder whether your child could legally be charged with possession of marijuana even though it wasn’t theirs or they didn’t use it? The short but unfortunate answer is: Yes, they can. Charges for possession may be brought against passengers who do not legally own the marijuana (or other drugs), do not have it in their personal possession, and do not know that it is somewhere within the vehicle.


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Juvenile Division of the Macomb County Circuit Court

The Macomb County Juvenile Court is located at the Old Macomb County Building at 10 North Main, Mt. Clemens, Michigan 48043: Most matters are heard at this building before a referee. 

Juvenile delinquency cases are akin to criminal cases in the adult system.  When a minor (age 16 or under) is charged with a crime (Michigan Penal Code), the case will be referred to Juvenile Court in the county where the child resides; not to the adult criminal courts. If found guilty, the juvenile may not be placed in adult prison.  The main focus of this publication will pertain to “juvenile delinquency cases” with emphasis on our firm’s experience in the Juvenile Division of the Macomb County Circuit Court.

The Juvenile Division of the Macomb County Circuit Court is located at 10 North Main, Mt. Clemens, Michigan 48043.  When a case is filed, it is assigned to one of the referees.  The job of a referee involves working with the attorney, the juvenile, the family, the prosecutor, the case worker and the victim. In our experience, more than 90% of all juvenile cases are resolved at this level. Depending upon the circumstances and the prior record of the offender, there are a variety of resolutions that are possible in the juvenile system. Diversion and consent calendar are extremely favorable proceedings which do not result in any finding of ‘guilt’ and the charge(s) are eventually dismissed.  A juvenile that enters a plea of guilty or is found guilty faces a range of dispositions that are suited for the particular individual such as: probation, house arrest, drug testing, counseling and in extreme cases detention. Referees may also conduct trials if agreed upon by the juvenile defense attorney, prosecutor and referee. The juvenile also has a constitutional right to have a jury trial. In Macomb County, jury trials are held at the Macomb County Circuit Court Building before the Circuit Court Judge assigned to the case.

Crimes by Persons Age 16 or Younger Treated as Juveniles

  • Age 16 and younger: Generally, someone under age 17 who commits a crime is treated as a “juvenile”. Juvenile cases which involve criminal activity are referred to as delinquency cases and are handled in the juvenile court. In certain cases, a juvenile case may be waived to the adult criminal court. Juvenile offenders may also be eligible for a dismissal of the offense depending upon the circumstances.
  • Waiver of juveniles to adult criminal court: Pursuant to MCL 712A.4, upon motion by the prosecuting attorney and a hearing before the court, a juvenile 14 years of age or older, accused of a felony, may be tried as though he or she were an adult. The statute further provides: “the court shall conduct a hearing to determine if the best interests of the juvenile and the public would be served by granting a waiver of jurisdiction to the court of general criminal jurisdiction.”  In making its determination, the court shall consider several factors, giving greater weight to the seriousness of the alleged offense and the juvenile’s prior record of delinquency than to the other criteria.
  • Age 17 and older: At age 17 and beyond, a person is treated as an adult for his or her criminal conduct. In our website, we explain the availability of HYTA for offenders that are age 17 but under age 24. HYTA is a status that is negotiated which can result in an offense being dismissed and the record forever sealed.

More Drug Crimes, Sex Crimes & False Bomb/Terrorism Threats

Our Macomb County defense attorneys have seen an increase in juvenile delinquency cases for crimes involving drugs, sexual activity and false bomb/terrorism threats.  Protecting our children from the outside world is becoming more difficult than ever.  Juveniles are faced with many forces of distraction and temptation.  Hard street drugs, marijuana and addictive prescribed medications are easily obtainable. In addition, the internet and cable television allows our children to access pornography and negative programming which shapes their values about sexuality and violence.  Juveniles that are unpopular or impulsive may use social media to post threatening messages that can result in serious criminal charges; false threats of terrorism/bomb threats.

Drug crimes, sex crimes and false threats of terrorism are all cases that are potentially manageable in the juvenile system.  Depending upon the circumstances, we may recommend a psychological profile to rule out predatory or violent behavior.  For cases involving false threats of terrorism/bomb threats, we always ask for character letters from family members, neighbors, teachers and members of the community that can attest to the positive qualities and good nature of our juvenile client.

Cases Involving Allegations of Sex Crimes against Juveniles

The lives of every family member is torn apart and turned upside down when a loved one is accused with a sex crime. A juvenile may be charged with a sex crime for possession of sexual images, transferring sexual images (sexting) or inappropriate behavior with a family member or non-family member.  The age of consent in Michigan is 16 for sexual activity. Therefore,  consent is not a defense to a sex crime when the victim is age 15 or younger under any circumstances, even if the victim lied about her age!

When a juvenile is accused of an inappropriate sexual incident, the parents are typically first notified by a detective.  The detective may have received a complaint from an individual or from a party under a duty to report the incident such as a physician, counselor or school personnel.  Once notified that a juvenile is accused of a sex crime, there are many steps that can be taken to prepare the juvenile and the juvenile’s family for action by the police, Child Protective Services intervention and juvenile court proceedings.

We believe in proactive management of cases when a juvenile is accused or charged with a sex crime. Our juvenile sex crime plan may include the following:

  • Advising the family and juvenile of constitutional right to remain silent (discussed below).
  • Cleaning up social media pages, cell phones (discussed below).
  • Advising the family and juvenile to refer any matters relating the allegations to their attorney.
  • Advising the family and juvenile regarding a strategy to deal with Child Protective Services.
  • Advising the family and juvenile regarding a strategy to deal with the law enforcement agency conducting an investigation.
  • Advising the family and juvenile regarding polygraph examinations.
  • Advising the family and juvenile regarding the Macomb County Juvenile Court Intake Process.
  • Sex specific psychological profile and counseling services to rule out predatory tendencies or future risk to others.
  • Sex specific and psychological counseling services for juveniles that have an underlying problem.
  • What to do if the alleged offense involves another minor child in the household.
  • Identifying cases that may be based upon lies by the alleged victim.
  • Taking an approach to avoid a sex-crime and the Sex Offender Registry (SORA)

How would you deal with any of the above legal and personal issues? Getting a lawyer as soon as you learn of an investigation can make a huge difference in the ultimate result of a juvenile sex crime case and help you regain your sanity.

Police May Attempt to Obtain a Confession

Prior to the issuance of a petition within the Macomb County Juvenile Court, the police may attempt to obtain a confession or statement from the juvenile suspect. The juvenile has all of the rights as an adult and would be urged to remain silent until an attorney can be secured. An attorney can often make recommendations as to whether or not cooperation with the police is an appropriate course of action. It may not always be plausible to have an attorney on hand when the police confront a juvenile since the police prefer to catch a suspect off balance.

 Juvenile Cases Begin with a Police Report and a Petition

 If criminal activity of a juvenile is brought to the attention of the police or authorities, a report is generated and submitted to the prosecutor. If the conduct of the juvenile supports a criminal offense, the prosecuting attorney can file a petition in the juvenile court. In Macomb County, juvenile cases are evaluated by the Macomb County Prosecutor’s Office. If the petition is approved, the juvenile may be detained pending an arraignment.

Juvenile Cases are Filed in the County Where the Juvenile Resides

Unlike adult criminal cases which are filed in the jurisdiction where the offense occurred, juvenile cases are filed in the county where the juvenile resides. Thus a juvenile that is a resident of Shelby Township, Sterling Heights or Washington Township would have his or her case heard in the Macomb County Juvenile Court even if the alleged criminal offense occurred outside of Macomb County.

Right to Jury Trial

The juvenile is entitled to a trial if a case is not resolved by other attempts.  Trials may be heard by the referee or by the Judge that is assigned to the case. However, the juvenile in a delinquency matter has a right to a jury trial pursuant to the United States Constitution. Trials in the juvenile system are handled pursuant to the Michigan Rules of Evidence.

Text Messaging, Photographs and Social Media Sites May Be Incriminating

Upon being retained, we will advise our juvenile clients to refrain from drawing any negative attention. By this, we may insist that our client refrain from texting or posting anything on social networks such as Facebook or Instagram. In addition, we may advise our client to remove any incriminating or unbecoming photographs which are posted on the internet. We may even recommend that our client shut down any social media internet sites while under investigation or the subject of a delinquency case.

Resolution of Juvenile Cases: Dismissals, Avoiding Felony Record, Avoiding Sex Crime

The juvenile court system is similar to the adult criminal system when fashioning a resolution. There are several variables that the prosecutor, probation officer and court will take in to consideration:

  • Any prior juvenile record (convictions or prior petitions in the court system)
  • The school, home and community record of the juvenile.
  • Whether the juvenile is incorrigible and/or habitually truant.
  • Whether the juvenile is addicted to drugs or alcohol and not responding to treatment.
  • Whether the juvenile has violent propensities or is a sexual predator.
  • The juvenile’s steps towards improvement during the pendency of the underlying case.
  • Whether the existing home is suitable for the juvenile to improve.

Dispositions: A juvenile that scores negatively with the court system can wind up in the youth home or face long term placement. Conversely, the Macomb Juvenile Court system is one that will consider community supervision (probation) and positive dispositions such as:

  • Diversion whereby a conviction is never entered and the case is eventually dismissed.
  • Consent Calendar with probation and dismissal upon compliance.
  • Avoiding a felony conviction.
  • Avoiding a conviction for a crime of dishonesty (larceny) or violence (assault).
  • Avoiding a sex crime conviction.
  • Avoiding the Sex Offender Registry.
  • Setting up a plea bargain for future expungement.

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The 36th District Court is by far the busiest district court in the State of Michigan. It has a single location at 421 Madison, Detroit, Michigan 48226. There are 30 judges at this location that have demanding criminal, drunk driving and traffic dockets.

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